The history of later Indian painting (16th--19th centuries) is dominated by two distinct stylistic traditions, one flourishing at the court of the Mughal empire, the other at the courts of the various Rajput dynasties that held sway in regions along the periphery of the Mughal domain. The course introduces these two traditions through in-depth consideration of twenty-three representative masterworks, paintings that demand sustained close examination to fully unpack their content, their aesthetic dimensions, and the historical milieu in which they were produced and received. The first half of each session is devoted to a collective "close looking" at one of the key paintings (in the form of a high-resolution digital image), which then leads into broader discussion of related works and larger interpretive themes. Topics to be considered include the historical connections between the Mughal and Rajput schools; the relationships between painting, poetry, and music; the concerns of natural history painting; and the manner in which both Mughal and Rajput artists appropriated formal conventions from 16th century European prints and paintings. No previous knowledge of Indian art or the methods of art history is assumed or needed to succeed in this course.