Ribosomes are the large and highly conserved organelles charged with the task of converting the nucleotide-based messages of mRNAs into the polypeptide sequence of proteins. This act of translation is remarkable, not only for its efficiency and fidelity, but also for the shear complexity of the reaction, including the wide variety of molecules (mRNAs, tRNAs, rRNAs, proteins, amino acids, etc.) that need to be harnessed for its execution. In this course we will investigate the mechanism of translation as well as the biosynthetic pathways that are involved in the synthesis of ribosomes themselves. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems will be considered, including the question of how ribosome biosynthesis, which constitutes a major fraction of the total cellular economy, is regulated in response to changing cellular conditions.