This sophomore tutorial surveys the breadth of European history from the French Revolution to the post-World War II era. Major themes include revolution, industrialization, empire, nation-building, and war. Emphasis is on primary sources and on classic secondary works. The history tutorial considers modern Europe in terms of diverse, often competing, types of history--for example, political, economic, military, social, intellectual, gender, and cultural history. This stress on historiography, the study of historical writing, helps students to assess the ebb and flow of modern European politics and culture and enables them to identify the impact of Europe on the rest of the world during these centuries. Strong emphasis will be placed on developing students' reading, writing, and debating skills. Overall, the students in this tutorial will gain a solid historical grounding in modern Europe and will also acquire the particular analytical skills prized by historians.