This seminar aims to identify varieties and components of fascist ideologies and to undertake comparative analysis of European fascist movements in the first half of the 20th century. The initial focus will be on the several ways fascism has been defined and understood, including examples of how the term has been utilized to characterize certain governments and personalities. Specific attention then will be devoted to Italy, Germany, Spain, and France, with emphasis on Mussolini and Hitler and their regimes. Additionally, apparent linkages of fascism to post-1945 politics, such as the National Front in France, will be explored. Other fascist movements may be chosen as the subject of a major research paper. Materials for the seminar will include documentary sources, films, interpretive studies, and biographies.