The course falls into two broad sections. In the first, we will attempt to understand the religious world of the 16th century, and to situate the Reformations in the context of Humanism and the revival of piety known as the "devotio moderna" (modern devotion). We will look closely at four versions of religious reform and devotion in the figures of Martin Luther, John Calvin, Ignatius of Loyola (founder of the Jesuits) and Theresa of Avila. In the second part of the course, we will explore the social and political ramifications of the Reformations: the birth of confessional Europe, the consolidation of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations (aka "Courterreformation"), the so-called radical Reformation, the intensification of religious, social, and sexual discipline on the part of secular and ecclesiastical authorities, and the origins of the Wars of Religion. There are two major goals of this course. The first is to give students a solid acquaintance with the principle ideas, events, and personalities of the European Reformations. The second goal is to understand how historians have understood and interpreted the Reformations, and to explore more generally the question of whether or not the Reformations can be considered to mark emergence of "modernity" as we experience it today.