The Enlightenment has become a contested historical category in recent years. Was it a unitary movement, motivated by materialistic philosophy, antimetaphysical and radical at its core, or is the Enlightenment best approached in a national or confessional context? Was the Enlightenment a particular set of ideas or, instead, a group of practices? Was the Enlightenment compatible with--even rooted in--religion? At stake in the debate is a contest over the legitimacy of cherished ideals of Western modernity: tolerance, equality, and human rights. This advanced research seminar begins by surveying recent major interpretations of the Enlightenment. We will then proceed to individual research projects and papers, which will be discussed and presented in class. Emphasis will be placed on the writing and revision process.