Who exactly is a Spaniard? And which particular qualities constituted "Spanishness" for peninsulares (i.e., those born in Spain itself), for the diverse inhabitants of the Spanish New World, and for Spain's allies and rivals abroad? Was it a question of blood, culture, religion, or some combination thereof? These were questions that provoked profound anxieties, as well as a variety of responses, in the late medieval and early modern periods, particularly as Spain confronted religious and "racial" others both at home (i.e., Jews and Muslims) and overseas (e.g., Amerindians). In this course, we will closely examine these anxieties and responses, paying special attention to the creation and representation of identity itself. Topics will include the legacy of convivencia (i.e., the "coexistence" of Jews, Christians, and Muslims in medieval Spain), "purity of blood" laws, the so-called Black Legend (of Spanish rapacity and fanaticism), and the fascinating artistic genre known as "casta paintings" that depicted the dizzying variety of racial mixtures found and produced in the Spanish colonial world.