From movies like "Think Like a Man" to songs like "God Made Girls," from federal policies to gender reveal parties, much of our experience is defined by an ideology of gender dichotomy and an endorsement of fundamental sex differences in behavior. But does science agree? The field of neuroscience is bursting with research that both supports and questions inherent differences in the brains and behavior of men and women. In this course we will be taking an open and critical look at this scientific literature. We will begin by clarifying what it means, biologically, to be male/female, determine the limits to these definitions and evaluate how these biological elements (genes/hormones/anatomy) interact with our environment and society to influence our behavior and gender identity. Additionally, we will evaluate nonhuman animal and human data regarding sex differences in behaviors (e.g., aggression, verbal communication) and neuropathological states (e.g., addiction, autism spectrum disorder). Student assessment will include effortful and active participation, short written responses, one long response paper, in-class quizzes, and a final presentation.