Over the past two centuries, states have been among the most prodigious producers and consumers of scientific information. Broad areas of scientific inquiry--such as demography, economics, geography, and ecology--substantially developed in response to the need of states to manage their populations, their economies, and their natural resources. State-directed scientific and technological innovation has also played a critical role in the pursuit of national security and infrastructural development, most notably through the development of nuclear weapons, missiles, and an array of military technologies. Finally, states have turned to scientific experts to enhance the credibility and legitimacy of policy decisions. This course introduces students to literature in the history of science that explores the connections between systems of knowledge and state power. Themes developed include the tensions between expertise and democracy, secrecy and scientific openness; the relationship between political culture and scientific and technological development; and the role of quantification, standardization, and classification in producing political order.